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Peacemaking is one of the few areas of foreign policy which uses long-term and stable support in many countries. It is supported by numerous public opinion polls: the people of Canada, for example, see their country as a “kingdom of peace” and consider the security and peacemaking issues as a duty to share prosperity with those who are in a conflict situation. Peacemaking reflects many countries’ commitment to social values of cooperation, tolerance, and goodwill. Many of the recommendations and approaches suggested by the world community were introduced in the UN practice allowing cooling down the conflicts in southern Africa, Nicaragua, Cambodia, Angola, and other countries. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to suggest the means and ways which would lead to the improvement of the peacemaking policies throughout the world.
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In one of the scientific investigation, Ivar Lohmann (2014) stated that “the scale of socio-political complexity of the societies engaged in efforts toward peace influences what kinds of peaceful alternatives to violent engagements are possible, since peace, like war, is a collective undertaking requiring political will and control. For peace to be sustainable, tailored cultural ideologies that provide viable alternatives to war must be distributed and maintained.” This citation shows that in order to sustain peace it is necessary to involve the world community. In other words, to establish and attain peace, it is important to apply the cooperation in the most extended meaning of the word.
The further importance is to be given to the tools which are expected to be used in order to attain peace. In this regard, Asali has a conviction that “the private sector – global institutions, enterprises, and citizens – has yet to assert its own role and defend its values and interest in peace. Much can and should be done to invest in development, initially as a peace dividend and ultimately as a capitalist investment.” Thus, this position is similar to the idea of Ivar Lohmann about the collective approach to the peacemaking process all over the world. However, the key essence of the issue lies in the global understanding that peace is much more difficult to be established than the war.
The necessity of attaining peace is caused by the fact that the war brings “instability, poverty and crime restrict the ability of the government and NGOs to respond to the people’s need. The government is weak, international troops few.” Only in case of achieving peace, the war and its consequences can be suppressed.
It is important to single out the key issues in peace making approaches. One of the main problems of modern peacemaking is the growing gap between the expectations of the world community (which holds that the UN intervention in the conflict must ensure its approval) and a real inability of continuing operations for many decades to provide the political conflict resolution.
Often peacekeeping operations are carried out in an environment where there is little or no peace which could be supported. In this regard, the numerous scholars have grounded one of their main recommendations which could be called as an appeal to the ‘politicization’ of the conflict(s) resolution. The former approach to peacemaking assumed that the task of the international community, which is mainly represented by the United Nations, is to concern the passive approach and contribute to the process of “freezing” of any conflict, the termination of bloodshed, separation of the parties and giveing them ‘time and place’ for settlement and the political solution.
At the same time, the United Nations Organization itself, in accordance with the principles of impartiality and equidistance from the parties of the conflict should not hold any political position in relation to the conflict or support any of those involved in its political forces. However, in practice, the disengagement of the parties or the process of freezing of military action is not enough. The warring parties are known to often lack the political will to compromise. Sometimes it happens that endless change of leaders of the warring factions may result in no sustainable infrastructure negotiations. For this reason, the flashing hostility easily breaks the emerging agreement.
The second feature of the policy is the so-called gender component. It is proved that women and men have different understandings of the problems of peace, security, and conflict resolution. Accounting experience of each of the gender groups in the formation of approaches to peacemaking allows achieving more sustainable and long-term results.
According to experts, the following performance indicators of gender policy in this area are the inclusion of gender component in the mandate of peacekeeping operations; consultants that are involved in operations of the gender’s understanding; appropriate training for peacekeepers; interaction in the shares with women’s non-governmental organizations. This idea is strongly supported by Haq (2006), who believes that “women in decision-making positions can also ensure that women’s concerns and interests are taken into account when choices influencing peace and security are made. From my work in different conflict areas, I know that decision makers often fail to include women’s knowledge and interests when making policy.” In particular, the spectrum of operations includes the trend in the conflict regions of special
United Nations envoy, mediation in the negotiations, the regional mission of preventive and diplomacy (preventive diplomacy is an area of diplomatic practice). Furthermore, the same range of operations includes the observation mission (observation of the ceasefire or political elections, etc.), the mission of technical experts (for example, the specialists in the organization of the elections).
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At the same time, it is necessary to put a number of operations support for the peace process (peacekeeping) to help the parties implement the already signed or emerging peace
agreement. However, besides the spectrum offered to carry and such a group of operations that previously carried into the special category of ‘political missions’, intervention in conflicts by the UN Security Council decisions and the participation of the military, police, and civilian personnel oppose international intervention in the politics of sovereign states. The idea is to treat the whole arsenal of measures by the UN (from the softest to preventive mediation and the most severe power) as a single instrument.
To sum up, the leading role in peacemaking all over the world has to be performed by the bodies that have been created for this particular purpose, such as the UNO. At the same time, the main appeal of the world community on peacekeeping is to turn the United Nations from a relatively passive assistant in peace processes to the leader of a political settlement in each case, for which the organization undertakes. The appeal in the event of at least partial implementation deeply and seriously changes the character of the entire United Nations peacekeeping. The particular attention has to be paid to the role of men and women since their different understanding of the issue of peace attaining can negatively impact the peacemaking process. Finally, the peacemaking strategies have to be centered on the collective approach in order to prevent the world from any wars and any military conflicts.