Class of Diseases


According to the world health report of the year 2003, there are various classes of diseases currently experienced in the world. These diseases range from bacterial infections to viral infections. Some of the illnesses are airborne such as H1N1 while some others are transmitted. Some of the most brutal cases of infections include Cholera, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. They spread very fast in nature and are in most instances more dangerous and drug-resistant forms. Thus, this paper chooses and describes HIV & AIDs, its diagnosis, signs and symptoms, prevention, and treatment as well as the adverse effects it has on the human body.

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Part A

1. Choice of a Disease

Among the viral infections, one disease that poses a great danger to the human population is HIV/AIDS. Over the last several years, multi-drug medication and therapies have lowered HIV and AIDs deaths to about two-thirds which is seventeen thousand annually in the United States. Nevertheless, rising microbial resistance to these drugs as well as persistent new illnesses will prolong the HIV threat in the United States. Apart from America, the developing nations including the former communist states will perhaps continue experiencing a greater impact of the dangerous disease.

In the Sub-Saharan Africa, HIV has been reported to result in approximately half of the infection deaths worldwide since this region is the most susceptible globally. The infection rate is higher as compared to the other regions. The Pacific and the Asian regions have advanced the multi-drug resistant Cholera, Malaria, and TB which are widespread and, thus, lead to a big rise in deaths caused by the infectious illnesses. HIV & AIDs impinges on a countrys economic growth by lowering the accessibility to the human capital. Therefore, due to the devoid of a suitable prevention measure, a huge number of people will disappear. These facts expose HIV as the most perilous disease across the globe.

2. Impact of HIV & AIDs over the last 50 years

In the last 50 years, HIV and AIDs has been a scary specter that has spread across the globe taking lives of nearly 39 million people. It has considerably deterred the fight against poverty, especially in the developing states. Nevertheless, nowadays, things are changing and the disease does not imply a death sentence any longer since most infected people are currently accessing modern medication and lead a normal life. Scientists have also gone further to release a drug that is extremely successful in preventing the infection of HIV. In the year 2014, the World Health Organization discovered fresh guidelines referred to as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis, which involves individuals who are negative using the pill in a bid to lower the risk of catching the virus.

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Part B

1. Diagnosis

HIV infection is widely diagnosed by using blood tests. There are three special types of tests that are run and widely being used. These are the following:

  1. RNA tests
  2. HIV antibody tests
  3. A combination tests that tries to indentify both a virus referred to as p24 and antibodies.

a. Causes of the HIV

A person can get the virus through the contact with the infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids. The following mediums are normally used to transmit the virus:

  • Having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
  • Sharing sharp objects such as drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV.
  • The virus can also be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth of the child or during breastfeeding. However, this can be controlled if the mother is diagnosed early enough so the child can be protected from the mothers infection.

A patient can also be given blood through blood transfusion which happens to be infected. This will lead to the patient being infected by HIV from the infected blood which came from an infected donor.

b. Signs and Symptoms

Alcamo outlines such symptoms as fatigue, anemia, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting, dizziness or headaches, insomnia, pain and nerve problems, a skin rash, dry mouth, weight loss among many others. Despite the disease having these symptoms, there is no a definite symptom indicating the presence of HIV. The disease can only be confirmed by the HIV blood testing, which is necessary, since it is the only means of diagnosing the infection.

c. Diagnosis of the disease

HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases that hardly reveals itself, especially during its early stages. The disease can only be confirmed through testing of a patients blood. A number of people look perfectly normal, although they have the virus circulating in their blood streams.


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2. Prevention of the Disease

The disease can simply be prevented by not indulging in sexual irresponsible behavior. A person should not indulge in sex with multiple partners. However, if by any chance this happens, the people engaging in such should use protection. Besides, care should be taken when handling sharp objects such as razor blades and drug needles to prevent infection through cutting the skin. In case of mother-to-child infection, modern technology has given a chance to an infected mother to give a healthy birth to a child. The mothers internal fluids can be prevented from mixing with the childs, thus, avoiding the childs infection. Moreover, the mother should not breastfeed the child, which prevents chances of an infection to the child ensuring the baby is born being HIV negative. Lastly, it is important that blood transfused to the patients is screened thoroughly for any infections including HIV/AIDS before it is transfused to the recipient. This protects the recipient from being infected with contaminated blood from an infected donor.

3. Treatment of HIV/AIDS

A number of treatments currently help patients to cope with HIV. Many of the HIV patients have a long life which is much healthier. The medicines work by slowing the growth of the virus, although the virus cannot be stopped. As a result, the amount of viruses in blood  is reduced. The various anti-HIV drugs work administered together to combat the virus, thus, reducing its harm to the white blood cells.

a. Nowadays, the disease is treated by the use of Anti-retroviral which attack and reduce the effects of the virus. However, other people are also seeking for the alternative treatment. These include many types of therapies that are administered to the patients such as h

omeopathic medicine which is an individualized treatment that includes natural substances such as minerals, vitamins, and herbs. It is based on the rule that this substance can cure when given in small doses.

Secondly, physical therapies including massage therapy that involves touching or rubbing the body tissues to reduce pain and improve blood flow to the heart and brain muscles. Thirdly, acupuncture which involves the insertion of tiny needles into certain areas of the body to increase energy, reduce fatigue, decrease nerve pain, and even help with addiction to some substances such as cigarettes. The alternative treatment is normally implemented with the objectives of strengthening the bodys immune system, providing relief to the body from symptoms and drug side effects, and also improving the quality of life of the patient.

b. The prospect of recovery or actually the prognosis for HIV and AIDs victims has over the last 20 years enhanced considerably. However, it still depends on various aspects such as a proper treatment as well as access to specialists. Currently, there is no cure yet for the disease but a blend of several drugs can lower its adverse effects enabling patients to live longer. In most instances, treating HIV and AIDs at an early stage helps improve prognosis.

4. Epidemiology of the disease

HIV is a virus that assaults the human immune system. It works by attacking and destroying the white blood cells. In fact, white blood cells are an important part of the immune system. HIV infects and destroys certain white blood cells called CD4+ cells. In addition, if a good number of CD4+ cells are damaged, the human body may not be able to defend itself against infections like malaria and TB. The HIV then develops into a more harmful stage of the disease called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which is the final stage of infection. Consequently, a person with AIDS has a low number of CD4+ cells. These people get other infections that hardly infect other healthy people, thus, die from them. It takes time, usually 10-12 years for HIV to develop into AIDS.

5. Effect of the Disease on the Human body Homeostasis

HIV and AIDs causes abnormalities in the body homeostasis. It also creates retardation in the amount of respiration in the human cells. Moreover, it normally leads to the disturbance in the human health and, hence, affects the human health. Finally, the bodys resistance to diseases becomes low.


In conclusion, HIV is a deadly virus, which has claimed and is still claiming millions of lives across the world. Avoidance and care should be taken to prevent the infections. Additionally, there should also be mobilization of the population in order to stop new infections. Upon infection, a proper care should be provided to the patients including thorough advice and support.